A peer-reviewed quarterly publication dedicated to professional education for optometrists, vision scientists, occupational therapists, ophthalmologists and other low vision practitioners.

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Visibility (ISSN 2330-0965 – Print) (ISSN 2330-0973 – Online) is published quarterly by Envision University, 610 N. Main Wichita, KS 67203 (316) 440-1515 (opens in new window)

Copyright © 2023 Envision University. Individual articles are Copyright © 2023 of the indicated authors, printed with permission. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission of Envision University.

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Visibility 16 Issue 4, 2022

Useful Field of View Measurements in Common Low Vision Telescopes

Frank Spors, EurOptom, MS, PhD; Nane Ghazaryan; Bennett McAllister, OD

Small telescopes have been proven to be useful for people with vision impairment assisting them in identifying distant objects thereby aiding their mobility and independent travel. These telescopes are typically labeled by their magnification power and objective lens size, both of which are easy to measure clinically. A third parameter that is critical to ease of use and function, is the field of view. While manufacturers state the visual field angles of telescopes, they cannot be easily verified in a clinical setting. We utilized a standard tangent screen to verify the extent of the useful visual fields through a variety of commonly used telescopic devices used in low vision rehabilitation.

Visibility 16 Issue 4, 2022

Development of Virtual Reality Platform for Functional Vision Assessment of People with Low Vision

Sarika Gopalakrishnan, FAAO, PhD; Chris Elsa Samson Jacob, MSc. Optometry; Meenakshi Kumar, M.Sc Clinical Ophthalmology and Vision Research; Rajiv Raman, MS, DNB, FRCS

To develop a virtual reality (VR) platform for the assessment of visual performance of people with low vision.

Visibility 16 Issue 4, 2022

Mesopic Full-field Stimulus Threshold Testing – a Quick Method to Determine that Low Light Dysfunction is due to Poor Rod and Cone Function

Ronald A Schuchard, PhD, FARVO; Rajkumar Raveendran, PhD, FAAO; Jeff Farmer, MBA

The main objective of this preliminary study was to test a protocol of mesopic full-field stimulus threshold (mFST) testing to assess rod and cone function in controls and individuals poor low light functioning (due to retinitis pigmentosa; RP). Typically dark adapted black background FST testing requires pupil dilation and dark adaptation for at least 30 to 45 minutes. This traditional process of FST testing requires 45 to 60 minutes to complete the testing. We hypothesized that rod and cone function assessment can be achieved by performing FST in mesopic (low light; 0.01 cd/m2 to 3.0 cd/m2) back ground luminance without either pupil dilation or dark adaptation which then only requires 5 minutes of testing. Most nighttime outdoor and street lighting conditions are in the mesopic range of lighting.

Visibility 16 Issue 4, 2022

Exploratory Pilot Study using Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Vision Restoration in Patients with RP

Ronald A Schuchard, PhD, FARVO

This Pilot Study was designed to provide evidence for safety and effectiveness for the electrical stimulation at-home therapy. The low level electrical stimulation to the retina is intended to improve visual function in adult patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

Visibility 16 Issue 3, 2022

Loneliness in the Visually Impaired

Donald Fletcher, MD; Ron Schuchard, PhD, FARVO

To examine the extent of loneliness in low vision patients and whether there is an association with pet/human companionship, visual function status and other factors.

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