A peer-reviewed quarterly publication dedicated to professional education for optometrists, vision scientists, occupational therapists, ophthalmologists and other low vision practitioners.

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Visibility (ISSN 2330-0965 – Print) (ISSN 2330-0973 – Online) is published quarterly by Envision University, 610 N. Main Wichita, KS 67203 (316) 440-1515 (opens in new window)

Copyright © 2021 Envision University. Individual articles are Copyright © 2021 of the indicated authors, printed with permission. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission of Envision University.

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Visibility 14 Issue 2, 2020

Well-Being and Mental Health Factors among Informal Caregivers of Individuals with Visual Impairments

Callie Victor, PhD, OTR/L, CLA; Matthew Haase, MS, OTR/L, ATC; Michael Bown; Lindsey Bates, OTR; Michael Centra, OTR/L; Jaclyn Sachleben; Elizabeth Tyson; Michelle Gamber, DrPH; Suleiman Alibhai

Individuals with visual impairments often require the support of informal caregivers, and these caregivers routinely make personal, emotional, financial, and physical sacrifices to provide care and support for their loved one. Previous research has indicated that mental health factors, level of impairment, emotional regulation, and education all impact the quality of care provided by caregivers. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the demands required, and supports needed, of informal caregivers for individuals with visual impairments.

Visibility 14 Issue 1, 2020

Tracking head-mounted video display (HMD) usage data statistics during a comparative study home trial of low vision enhancement systems

Ashley Deemer, OD; Kyoko Fujiwara, PhD; Chris Bradley, PhD; James Deremeik, RT, CLVT; Robert Chun, OD; Frank Werblin, PhD; Robert Massof, PhD

We are conducting a clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of a virtual bioptic telescope in an HMD low vision enhancement system with a wide field of view to currently employed specifications in HMD vision enhancement technology through patient reported outcome measures and usage data analytics. As these systems are being developed and frequently implemented into clinical vision rehabilitation, it is important to evaluate the usage and uptake of these systems with patients’ daily activities. By tracking the usage and magnification specifications of the device, visual function outcome measures may be further explained and correlated.

Visibility 14 Issue 1, 2020

Patient and Caregiver Post-Stroke Visual Concerns

Theresa Smith, PhD, OTR; Monique Pappadis, PhD; Shilpa Krishnan PT, PhD; Timothy Reistetter, PhD, OTR

Approximately 800,000 people in the United States have a stroke each year. As the number of older adults increases, it is expected that the number of people with strokes will also increase. Almost two-thirds of stroke survivors have some visual problems adversely affecting their overall function. Visual impairments which can occur following stroke include low vision, eye movement and visual field abnormalities, and visual perceptual difficulties. Although visual field abnormalities may be chronic or resistant to care, other visual impairments can be corrected and respond well to care. Visual issues may be subtle or overlooked when prioritizing care for a stroke survivor. To maximize patient function, it is imperative that a thorough vision evaluation be performed and targeted invention initiated. To provide optimal care, it is important for healthcare providers to understand how stroke survivors and their caregivers experience visual concerns after stroke.

Visibility 14 Issue 1, 2020

Interactional Expertise of People who are Blind and Visually Impaired: An Analysis of Street Crossing Decisions through the Imitation Game

Guler Arsal, PhD

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of tacit knowledge acquired through immersion in a social group in learning. Specifically, our aim was to measure congenitally blind and normally-sighted individuals’ level of interactional expertise—“the ability to master the language of a specialist domain in the absence of practical competence” (Collins & Evans, 2007, p. 14)—to examine their sensitivity to environmental constraints and opportunities. We hypothesized that an individual who belongs to the minority social group of congenitally blind individuals can acquire the collective tacit knowledge of being a normally-sighted individual without much deliberate effort and intention, whereas the reverse is more difficult in the absence of explicitly acquired domain-specific knowledge. The scope of the study was limited to the problem context of navigation and wayfinding with and without vision.

Visibility 13 Issue 4, 2019

The Effect of Visual Impairment on Balance and Mobility in Adults Over Age 50

Kierstyn Napier-Dovorany, OD; Victoria Graham, PT, DPT, OCS, NCS

Visual impairment (VI) is linked to fall risk in the elderly, and poor health in younger adults. We convened an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in vision and mobility to focus our efforts on best practices in the study of VI and physical mobility. A case control study compared balance and walking function between adults with juvenile onset VI (beginning before age 18), those with adult onset VI (beginning after age 18), and an age and gender matched control group without VI.

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